Valerian

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Valerian_%28herb%29 Valerian valerian3 valerian4 Valeriana_officinalis_-_Köhler–s_Medizinal-Pflanzen-143 Valeriana_officinalis1 valerian-flowers-1613-granger

Valerian, in pharmacology and herbal medicine, is the name of a herb or dietary supplement prepared from roots of the plant. Crude extract of the root is often sold in the form of capsules. Valerian root has sedative and anxiolyticeffects. It can also be classified as a drug, since its consumption produces a sedative or medicinal effect, while it is not exclusively a type of food. These effects are suspected to be mediated through the GABA receptor.[1] The amino acidvaline is named after this plant.

Preparation[edit]

Valeriana officinalis

The chief constituent of valerian is a yellowish-green to brownish-yellow oil which is present in the dried root, varying from 0.5 to 2.0 percent, though an average yield rarely exceeds 0.8 percent. This variation in quantity is partly explained by location; a dry, stony soil yields a root richer in oil than one that is moist and fertile.[19] The volatile oils that form the active ingredient are extremely pungent, somewhat reminiscent of well-matured cheese. Though some people remain partial to the earthy scent, some may find it to be unpleasant, comparing the odor to that of unwashed feet.[20]Valerian tea should not be prepared with boiling water, as this may drive off the lighter oils.

Medicinal use[edit]

Valerian (Valeriana officinalis) essential oil

Valerian is most often used to treat insomnia. It can be considered an alternative treatment for hypnotic drugs. It is also sometimes used as an alternative for sedatives, such as benzodiazepines in the treatment of certain anxiety disorders.[21][22][23][24] Whether or not valerian is an efficacious treatment for insomnia is still a very open question. Multiple recent systematic reviews of the medical research literature and meta-analyses have produced conflicting conclusions regarding the efficacy of the substance. One systematic review and meta-analysis published in 2006 in the American Journal of Medicine concluded that “The available evidence suggests that valerian might improve sleep quality without producing side effects.”[25] An article in the Medical Science Monitor states that, “…based on cellular and animal studies as well as human clinical trials the literature supports a role for these preparations [including valerian root] as useful alternatives in the management of the stress and anxiety of everyday life.”[26] However, another systematic review, published in 2007 in the journal Sleep Medicine Review, concluded that valerian was safe but not clinically efficacious for insomnia.[27]

Regulation[edit]

In the United States, valerian extracts are sold as a nutritional supplement under the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994.

Oral forms, usage and adverse effects[edit]

Oral forms[edit]

Oral forms are available in both standardized and unstandardized forms. Standardized products may be preferable considering the wide variation of the chemicals in the dried root, as noted above. When standardized, it is done so as a percentage of valerenic acid or valeric acid.

Dosage[edit]

Dosage is difficult to determine, due to the lack of standardization and variability in available forms. The United States Government’s National Institutes of Health report that doses of 400–900 mg taken from 30 minutes to two hours before bed, or a lesser dose when combined with certain other supplements, have been researched.[28]

Adverse effects[edit]

Few adverse events attributable to valerian have been reported.[21] Large doses may result in stomach ache, apathy, and a feeling of mental dullness or mild depression. Because of the herb’s tranquilizer properties, it may cause dizziness or drowsiness, effects that should be considered before driving or operating heavy or hazardous equipment.[29]

In rare cases, valerian may cause an allergic reaction, typically as a skin rash, hives, or difficulty breathing.[29] This should be treated as a medical emergency.

Because the compounds in valerian produce central nervous system depression, they should not be used with other depressants, such as ethanol, benzodiazepines, barbiturates, opiates, kava, or antihistamine drugs.[30][31][32] Moreover, non-pregnant adult human hepatotoxicity has been associated with short-term use (i.e., a few days to several months) of herbal preparations containing valerian and Scutellaria (commonly called skullcap).[33] Withdrawal after long-term use in a male has also been associated with benzodiazepine-like withdrawal symptoms, resulting in cardiac complications and delirium.[34]

The very limited animal and human data do not allow a conclusion as to the safety of valerian during pregnancy. Moreover, as a natural, unregulated product, the concentration, contents, and presence of contaminants in valerian preparations cannot be easily determined. Because of this uncertainty and the potential for cytotoxicity in the fetus and hepatotoxicity in the mother, the product should be avoided during pregnancy.[30][31]

Effect on other organisms[edit]

An unusual feature of valerian is that valerian root and leaves are a cat attractant similar to, and as safe as catnip. Valerian contains the cat attractantactinidine. Cat attractants might mimic the odor of cat urine,[citation needed] which is caused by 3-mercapto-3-methylbutan-1-ol (MMB).[citation needed] Anecdotal reports claim that valerian is also attractive to rats—so much so that it had been used to bait traps. Stories describe the Pied Piper of Hamelin using both his pipes and valerian to attract rats.[19] Research also shows that valerian root is the strongest chemo-attractant of slime molds (Physarum polycephalum).[35]

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